家庭结构与不平等研究领域的“杰出人物”萨拉·麦克拉纳汉去世,享年81岁

Jan. 6, 2022, 4:47 p.m.

Sara McLanahan, a prominent sociologist whose work played a foundational role in the understanding of single parents and their children, died of cancer Dec. 31. She was 81.

被OPE体育的同事和学生描述为一个亲切和公正的学者, 麦克拉纳汉的教学和研究重点是社会差距, guided by a profound curiosity about why some children fared better than others and how family structure played a role. She passed on this curiosity — and a deep appreciation for collecting robust data — to the network of scholars she mentored and supported throughout her career.

Sara McLanahan

Sara McLanahan

麦克拉纳汉最伟大的学术遗产是《OPE体育》, 20年来,一项具有里程碑意义的纵向研究跟踪了近5个国家,在1998年到2000年间,美国20个大型国家中有1万名未婚父母所生的孩子.S. cities. Researchers around the country continue to draw upon this rich data set to better understand the connections between family structure and social inequality.

“我们对萨拉的去世深感悲痛,”她说 Amaney Jamal, dean of the OPE体育官网公共和国际事务学院 (SPIA). 她是与单身母亲相关的人口统计学研究的领军人物. 她不仅是该领域的杰出人物,也是SPIA社区的杰出成员. She will be terribly missed.”

McLanahan, the William S. OPE体育社会学和公共事务名誉教授Tod, 1990年加入香港大学,并由 Department of Sociology 以及伍德罗·威尔逊公共和国际事务学院(现在的SPIA). 她是本德海姆-托曼的创始董事 儿童健康研究中心 (CRCW) at SPIA.

1998年,中国船舶重工集团公司成为中国船舶重工集团公司的总部 脆弱家庭和儿童健康研究这家公司是麦克拉纳汉与她的长期合作伙伴兼配偶共同创办的, Irwin Garfinkel他是哥伦比亚大学世界著名的贫困问题专家 Ronald Mincy他曾在福特基金会(Ford Foundation)工作,现在在哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)工作. Today, CRCW is led by U.S. poverty expert Kathryn Edin, the 威廉·丘奇·奥斯本社会学和公共事务教授, 以及麦克拉纳汉的另一位长期合作者.

“Sara’s loss is monumental, 正如她对我们理解21世纪美国家庭演变的贡献一样. 除了奖学金,她还是一位受人爱戴的合作者、导师和朋友。.

在某些方面,麦克拉纳汉的工作是私人的. 作为一名单身母亲,她在攻读博士学位的同时抚养了三个孩子.D. 他是德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校的社会学教授. From the beginning, 她坚持不懈地追求真相,并热衷于跨学科工作.

It was during her graduate studies at UT-Austin that McLanahan discovered the field she would help shape for the next 40 years. 她报名参加了Teresa a的课程. Sullivan, a well-known demographer, who assigned the book, “过渡时期:妇女为户主的家庭的成长,作者希瑟·罗斯(Heather Ross)和伊莎贝尔·索希尔(Isabel Sawhill). “这一切都是关于离婚的增加以及对这些趋势的解读. 我喜欢这些东西,我想成为伊莎贝尔索希尔,”麦克拉纳汉在一次采访中说 April 2021 interview with the Population Association of America’s past presidents; she served in 2004.

After earning her Ph.D.她在威斯康星大学精神科完成了博士后奖学金. During this time, a New Yorker article was published claiming that growing up with a single parent could be harmful to children. McLanahan was stunned by the implication and set out on a relentless mission to prove the experts wrong using better data. 但不管分析得多么仔细, the results were the same: Children living with single parents did not fare as well as those raised by two married parents, 部分原因是经济因素.

这促使她对离婚对孩子的影响进行了更多的研究, 她在20世纪80年代一直在威斯康星大学学习. 1981年,她成为助理教授, 1986年被提前授予终身教授,1989年被提升为正教授. 她在那里遇到了加芬克尔,并和他一起写了第一本书. 她还与拉里·邦帕斯和詹姆斯·斯威特合作过, two of the leading family demographers in the country; she considered Bumpass her mentor.

In the late 1980s, 麦克拉纳汉得到了OPE体育的一个职位,加芬克尔称这是她“少女时代的梦想”.” For the next three decades, 她对未婚父母所生孩子的生活和状况进行了开创性的研究. 这些兴趣最终促使她在1994年发起了脆弱家庭和儿童健康研究.

麦克拉纳汉和加芬克尔称这项研究是“他们的孩子”,最终发展成比他们预期的更大的公司. 这项研究以3比1的比例对非婚生育进行了过度抽样, 这一策略导致了许多黑人的加入, 西班牙裔和低收入儿童. 母亲们在分娩后不久就在医院接受了第一次采访, while fathers — underrepresented in other studies — were also first interviewed at the hospital when they came to visit the child, 这一创新导致了许多父亲的参与. 随访采访在孩子1岁、3岁、5岁、9岁、15岁和22岁时进行.

这项研究开始于近30年前, its data have been used in 915 peer-reviewed publications across the social science disciplines and applied fields. 这项研究还发展成几项以DNA为重点的辅助研究, brain development, 重点青年的心血管健康和儿童. 最近,这些数据被用于人工智能目的 Matthew Salganik, OPE体育社会学教授, 是谁进行了一场涉及世界各地的社会科学家和数据科学家的大规模合作.

Colleagues and students said McLanahan was passionate about revealing the truths of family life in America, 坚定不移地告知政府政策. Through the study, McLanahan was able to show how labor market conditions and government policies shape family dynamics and child and adolescent well-being. 她强烈认为政府应该做更多的事来缩小贫富孩子之间的差距.

那些关心低收入家庭的孩子和他们的家庭的人失去了该领域最献身的人之一, 富有创造力和洞察力的冠军,” said Cecilia Rouse, 现任白宫经济顾问委员会主席, former SPIA dean, and the Lawrence and Shirley Katzman and Lewis and Anna Ernst Professor in the Economics of Education at Princeton. “萨拉帮助我们真正了解了低收入家庭的复杂性, 她的见解为公共政策提供了40多年的信息. 我们不仅失去了强大的智力力量, 而且也是我有幸认识的最善良、最慷慨的人之一.”

For more than 40 years, 麦克拉纳汉的工作塑造了公众对福利问题的辩论, 儿童资助和低收入家庭. 为此,她成为了《OPE体育官网》的主编 Future of Children in 2004, 这是SPIA和布鲁金斯学会(Brookings Institution)之间的合作,专注于教育等主题, 健康和有孩子的家庭是一个统一的主题. 在政策辩论中,期刊研究结果经常被引用.

“Sara was an inspirational leader and the driving force behind bringing the Future of Children to Princeton, in collaboration with Brookings,” said Christina Paxson布朗大学(Brown University)校长、SPIA前院长、该杂志前高级编辑. “The Future of Children exemplifies two of Sara's beliefs: that policies to support children and families should be grounded in excellent, carefully-done research and that scholars have an obligation to make their work accessible to policymakers and practitioners. I learned so much from her about the impact academic research can have on the world and was grateful to work with her on the journal.”

在OPE体育,麦克拉纳汉给她的学生和同事留下了不可磨灭的印象. 他们说她不仅才华横溢,而且善良真诚.

“Sara's research and mentoring legacy will continue through the scores of students and postdoctoral scholars she mentored throughout her career and through the countless researchers who continue to use data from the Fragile Families Study,” said Tod G. Hamilton他是OPE体育的社会学副教授,也是OPE体育的代理主任 Office of Population Research.

Colter Mitchell, 他曾是OPE体育的博士后,现在密歇根大学安娜堡分校工作, 他说我很荣幸能在这么优秀的人手下工作.

“莎拉在我身上冒了个险,”米切尔说. “我是一个疯狂的社会学研究生,不停地谈论遗传学, 她找到了解决问题的方法. 她让我做一些我不知道其他人会让我做的事. 是她成就了我的事业,对此我感激不尽.”

Former students say McLanahan was dedicated to collaboration and had the ability to sift through the most complex research methods and ask the simplest, most profound questions. Naomi Sugie Ph.D. ’14, 现在在加州大学欧文分校, 她还能想象自己在华莱士大厅麦克拉罕的办公室里的情景, engaged in these artful, practical conversations.

“我惊叹于莎拉的巨大贡献, 无论是过去还是未来, 我很感激她教会我的一切,” Sugie said. “I carry this on with my students today as they are working with the Fragile Families dataset to answer questions about policing, inequality and violence. 我还能听到萨拉问我,‘这有什么关系? 你要解决的差距是什么?’我也会问我的学生同样的问题.”

During her career, 麦克拉罕发表了超过125篇研究文章, seven books and edited volumes, and 59 book chapters. She published her first book, 《OPE体育》,” with Garfinkel. 她的新书《OPE体育官网》(Growing Up With a Single Parent) Gary Sandefur, won the Otis Dudley Duncan Award and the Goode Distinguished Publication Award from the American Sociological Association.

麦克拉罕应邀发表了57次演讲. 她曾当选美国艺术与科学学院成员(2019年), 美国哲学学会(2016), 国家科学院(2011年), 以及美国政治和社会科学院(2005年). She held positions on 12 external advisory boards and committees including the Population Association of America (PAA), 罗素塞奇基金会(RSF)和国家贫困中心. 2014年至2017年,她担任RSF董事会主席.

She enjoyed telling the story of a White House dinner she attended in the mid-1990s with President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore in which Gore “stole” her menu to take notes. 用餐结束时,她让戈尔拿一份新的菜单,他给了她. The framed menu hung in McLanahan’s Princeton kitchen and reminded the family to laugh about the event many times over the years. 

麦克拉罕出生在德克萨斯州的泰勒,是一名钢琴神童. 她十几岁时就读于阿斯彭音乐学校. 她说音乐学校的经历是她年轻的生命中最重要的. “I found my people there. 他们聪明、勤奋、诚实,”她告诉孩子们. 在她的余生中,她非常重视这些品质. She and Garfinkel returned to Aspen in the summers where they loved to listen to the students prepare for their performances in the annual Aspen Summer Festival. 

In 1958, 那时麦克拉纳汉还是个高中生, 她赢得了在东德克萨斯州立交响乐团演奏的机会. 她曾与大提琴家拉尔夫·科什鲍姆(Ralph Kirshbaum)合作,后来她还在其他演出中为后者伴奏. In the late 1970s, 在纽约为她的论文做研究, 她漫步走进林肯中心的一个音乐厅,看到了科什鲍姆的排演. 她对自己所走的非传统的人生道路产生了自我怀疑, 但看到Kirshbaum站在舞台上,她觉得这是她走在正确道路上的一个信号.

麦克拉罕一直想住在东北部,并在20世纪60年代被史密斯学院(Smith College)录取. She came to a compromise with her parents and was allowed to attend finishing school at Bennett College in Millbrook, New York. 她在史密斯学院读完了三年级,1962年离开学校结婚成家. 在那期间,她是一个有造诣的网球运动员, a real estate agent, 她是一名室内设计师,也是休斯顿学校废除种族隔离运动的积极分子. In 1973, she became a single mother while finishing her undergraduate work with a bachelor’s degree in sociology from the University of Houston in 1974. 1976年,她获得了社会学硕士学位和博士学位.D. 1979年毕业于奥斯汀大学社会学专业. 

McLanahan is survived by her husband Irwin Garfinkel; daughter Sara, married to Brian Edlin; son Ellery S. McLanahan Jr.; daughter Anna Bell McLanahan, married to Jeffrey Feldman; stepdaughters Leah, married to Mike Matthew, and Lynn Garfinkel, married to Patrick Williams; and grandchildren Molly, Henry, Rachel, Aaron and Reuven. 她的姐姐在她之前, Nancy Elizabeth Smith, 她于2018年在OPE体育官网的萨拉家中平静地去世.  

2022年春天,将在OPE体育官网校园为麦克拉罕举行追悼会, with details to be announced. PAA正在以她的名义建立一个纪念基金. 我们邀请您浏览并发表评论 a memorial blog 纪念麦克拉罕的一生和遗产.